As Cerejas (Portuguese Edition)

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In European Spanish, as in English, the present perfect is normally used to talk about an action initiated and completed in the past, which is still considered relevant or influential in the present moment. In Portuguese and Latin American Spanish, the same meaning is conveyed by the simple preterite , as in the examples below:. See the contrast with Spanish in the following example:.


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As this example suggests, the Portuguese present perfect is often closer in meaning to the English present perfect continuous. See also Spanish verbs: Contrasting the preterite and the perfect. Portuguese, uniquely among the major Romance languages, has acquired a "personal infinitive" , which can be used as an alternative to a subordinate clause with a finite verb in the subjunctive. The Portuguese perfect form of the personal infinitive corresponds to one of several possible Spanish finite verbs.

On some occasions, the personal infinitive can hardly be replaced by a finite clause and corresponds to a different structure in Spanish and English :. The personal infinitive is not used in counterfactual situations, as these require either the future subjunctive or the imperfect subjunctive. Also, it is conjugated the same as the future subjunctive see next section , provided the latter is not irregular ser , estar , ter , etc. In the first and third person singular, the personal infinitive appears no different from the unconjugated infinitive.


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The above rules also apply whenever the subjects of the two clauses are the same, but independent of each other. As shown, the personal infinitive can be used at times to replace both the impersonal infinitive and the subjunctive. Spanish has no such alternative. The future subjunctive, now virtually obsolete in Spanish, [] continues in use in both written and spoken Portuguese. It is used in subordinate clauses referring to a hypothetical future event or state — either adverbial clauses usually introduced by se 'if ' or quando 'when' or adjective clauses that modify nouns referring to a hypothetical future entity.

Spanish, in the analogous if-clauses, uses the present indicative [ citation needed ] , and in the cuando- and adjective clauses uses the present subjunctive. Spanish maintains such a difference only in fui 'I was' vs fue 'he was'. In all other cases, one of the two vowels has been regularized throughout the conjugation and a new third-person ending -o adopted: hice 'I did' vs hizo 'he did', pude 'I could' vs pudo 'he could', etc.

Portuguese has only three: farei 'I will do', direi 'I will say', trarei 'I will carry'.

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Spanish has restored - e by analogy with other verbs: hace 'he does', dice 'he says', quiere 'he wants', etc. The same type of analogy accounts for fiz vs hice 'I did' in the past tense. In nouns such as paz 'peace', luz 'light', amor 'love', etc.

This kind of contraction is much more extensive in Portuguese, involving the prepositions a 'to' , de 'of, from' , em 'in' , and por 'for' with articles and demonstratives regardless of number or gender. Both are generally [a] in most of Brazil, although in some accents such as carioca and florianopolitano there may be distinction.

Additionally, the prepositions de and em combine with the demonstrative adjectives and pronouns as shown below:. The neuter demonstrative pronouns isto 'this' isso , aquilo 'that' likewise combine with de and em — thus, disto , nisto , etc. The Portuguese contractions mentioned thus far are obligatory.

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Contractions can also be optionally formed from em and de with the indefinite article um , uma , uns , umas , resulting in num , numa , dum , duma , etc. Spanish employs a preposition, the so-called "personal a ", before the direct object of a transitive verb except tener when it denotes a specific person s , or domestic pet ; thus Veo a Juan 'I see John'; Hemos invitado a los estudiantes 'We've invited the students. Quite common in both languages are the prepositions a which often translates as "to" and para which often translates as "for".

However, European Portuguese and Spanish distinguish between going somewhere for a short while versus a longer stay, especially if it is an intended destination, in the latter case using para instead of a. While there is no specified duration of stay before a European Portuguese speaker must switch prepositions, a implies one will return sooner, rather than later, relative to the context. This distinction is not made in English and Brazilian Portuguese [ citation needed ]. In Spanish the distinction is not made if the duration is given in the context maybe implicitly , and in this case a is generally preferred.

Note, though, in the first example, para could be used in Portuguese if in contrast to a very brief period of time. In informal, non-standard Brazilian Portuguese, em in its original form or combined with a given article in a contraction, yielding no , na , numa , etc.

In Spanish hasta has the same meaning and function. Spanish has two prepositions of direction: para 'for', including 'headed for [a destination]' and hacia 'toward [not necessarily implying arrival]'. Of them, only para exists in Portuguese, covering both meanings. Colloquially, para is often reduced in both languages: to pa' in Spanish, [] and to pra sometimes written p'ra and this form may be used in literature or pa only in slang in Portugal and Rio de Janeiro, and not permitted in writing in Portuguese. Both languages have a construction similar to the English "going-to" future.

This also applies when the verb is in other tenses:. While as a rule the same prepositions are used in the same contexts in both languages, there are many exceptions.

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The traditional Spanish alphabet had 28 letters, while the Portuguese had Modern versions of recent years added k and w found only in foreign words to both languages. Portuguese also added y for loanwords. With the reform in by the 10th congress of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, Spanish alphabetization now follows the same pattern as that of other major West European languages. Prior to this date, however, the digraphs ch and ll were independently alphabetized.

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Many Spanish dictionaries and other reference material still exist using the pre-reform rule of alphabetization. Only in Spanish do interrogatives and exclamations use the question mark or exclamation point respectively at the beginning of a sentence.

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The same punctuation marks are used, but these are inverted. This prepares the reader in advance for either a question or exclamation type of sentence. On the other hand, in Portuguese, a person reading aloud lengthy sentences from an unfamiliar text may have to scan ahead to check if what at first appears to be a statement, is actually a question.

Otherwise, it would be too late to enable proper voice inflection. Neither language has the equivalent of the auxiliary verb to do , which is often used to begin a question in English.

English translation of 'cereja'

Both Spanish and English can place the verb before the subject noun to indicate a question, though this is uncommon in Portuguese, and almost unheard of in Brazil. Aside from changes of punctuation in written language, in speech, converting any of the above examples from a question to a statement would involve changes of both intonation and syntax in English and Spanish, but intonation only in Portuguese. The palatal consonants are spelled differently in the two languages. King Denis of Portugal , who established Portuguese instead of Latin as the official language, was an admirer of the poetry of the troubadours and a poet himself.

Examples include names such as Port. Mi nh o Sp. Maga ll anes.

Compare Sp. The exact pronunciation of these three consonants varies somewhat with dialect.

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The table indicates only the most common sound values in each language. A similar phenomenon can be found in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese e. It always represents the "soft c " sound, namely [ s ]. Example: cal z ado Sp. Both languages use diacritics to mark the stressed syllable of a word whenever it is not otherwise predictable from spelling. Since Spanish does not differentiate between mid-open and mid-close vowels and nasal vowels , it uses only one accent, the acute. Without the accent, as in Spanish, the last syllable would be a diphthong: Parag uai Portuguese and Parag uay Spanish 'Paraguay'.

These do not alter the rules for stress, though note endings - im , - ins and - um , - uns are stressed, as are their non-nasal counterparts see below. A couple of two-letter words consist of only the nasal vowel: em and um.

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